The use of massage as a way to treat chronic pain and other musculoskeletal ailments has been on for thousands of years. Ayurveda prescribes specific oil-based massages to treat muscle injuries and for detoxification. Ancient Egyptian and Chinese civilizations have also used pressure massages to improve health and maintain a healthy liver. In modern times, deep tissue massage has been used to supplement muscle recovery and treat chronic conditions because of the many benefits it offers. A deep tissue massage is distinctly different from other forms of massage like Swedish or Thai massage.


Referred pain spreads the goodness. Undoubtedly another reason that massage pain can feel good is the phenomenon of referred sensation. If you stimulate internal tissues anywhere in the body, muscle or otherwise, the brain really has trouble telling quite where the sensation is coming from. When you press hard enough on your muscles, particularly on sensitive trigger points, the pain is often experienced as though it originated from a much broader area.

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In ashiatsu, the practitioner uses their feet to deliver treatment. The name comes from the Japanese, ashi for foot and atsu for pressure.[34] This technique typically uses the heel, sesamoid, arch and/or whole plantar surface of foot, and offers large compression, tension and shear forces with less pressure than an elbow, and is ideal for large muscles, such as in thigh, or for long-duration upper trapezius compressions.[35] Other manual therapy techniques using the feet to provide treatment include Keralite, Barefoot Lomi Lomi, Chavutti Thirumal.
Athletes tend to know their bodies fairly well, so information presented to the therapist seems to be better. Compared to the general client, the athlete is also in good shape and is concerned about getting back to the field of play as soon as possible. Some athletes have an obsessive compulsive behavior about their sport. This generally makes them very compliant with the therapists’ recommendations. 

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Using a wide variety of tools including bands, combs, electricity, hooks, light energy, probes and stainless steel instruments to stimulate various pain-killing responses in the hands and feet, FitzGerald’s work was first brought to the public by Edwin Bowers in his 1915 article, “To stop that toothache, squeeze your toe,” which was published in Everybody’s Magazine. (15)

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Reflexology is best for people who are looking to relax or restore their natural energy levels. It’s also a good option if you aren’t comfortable being touched on your entire body. Reflexology uses gentle to firm pressure on different pressure points of the feet, hands, and ears. You can wear loose, comfortable clothing that allows access to your legs.

Deep tissue massage uses many of the same movements and techniques as a more classic superficial massage. The difference is that the pressure will generally be more intense, and concentrated on areas of tension and pain. The strokes are the same, but the movement is slower and deeper. At certain points during the massage, most people find there is usually some discomfort and pain. It is important to tell the therapist when they hit a tender spot and if any discomfort you experience is outside your comfort range. Due to the focused nature of the session, the treatment can become intense at times. 

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Shiatsu (literally, "finger pressure") is an ancient technique from Japan. It combines gentle stretches with finger pressure to work on different pressure points. The idea is to fix imbalances in the flow of energy in your body. Although there's no concrete evidence of Shiatsu's use as a healing method, people who have had this massage still report stress and pain relief. About.com's Alternative Medicine site says:
Facts get confused when we talk about deep pressure. “Deep pressure” is just what it sounds like: it is any type of massage therapy that is performed with more, or deeper, pressure. For example, I can perform a Swedish massage, (that is primarily used to relax the client) and use a heavier hand to take it from a light touch to a “medium” or “firm” touch. This fits most people but since every client is different and every therapist is different, it’s tough to really measure. Therefore, your therapist should manipulate your tissue and adjust their pressure until it is perfect for you. It is very important to ALWAYS speak up and let your therapist know if you need the pressure to be corrected, (i.e. if you need them to lighten up because it is too deep, or to apply more because it is not deep enough). Most everyone needs more pressure in some areas and less in others. This occurs because muscle tissue that contains Trigger Points is more sensitive to pressure and can be tender to the touch.
The benefits of a sports massage are numerous: improved flexibility, reduced risk of injury, and a boosted circulatory system, just to name a few. But bodywork isn’t a one-size-fits all tool, and there are certain things to consider before booking an appointment. Here, three runner-trusted massage therapists impart important pre-massage knowledge.  
Deep tissue massage uses many of the same movements and techniques as a more classic superficial massage. The difference is that the pressure will generally be more intense, and concentrated on areas of tension and pain. The strokes are the same, but the movement is slower and deeper. At certain points during the massage, most people find there is usually some discomfort and pain. It is important to tell the therapist when they hit a tender spot and if any discomfort you experience is outside your comfort range. Due to the focused nature of the session, the treatment can become intense at times.

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"I loved the program and what it had to offer,” he stated. “I knew then that I found my niche.” Victor graduated in 2005 and within one month landed a job as a massage therapist. “Swedish Institute was instrumental in laying the foundation for my career as a massage therapist,” he said. “The curriculum gave me all the tools I needed to be successful in the field.”
Inflammation caused by chronic stress and muscle tension can lead to worsened overall health, longer recovery time, reduced immune function and cardiovascular problems, such as high blood pressure. Studies have found that massage therapy can help lower cortisol levels and even boost production of the hormone called oxytocin, which relaxes the body and has soothing effects. (7) Oxytocin is the primary hormone responsible for sustaining social bonds in humans and increasing motivation for cooperative behaviors, which is why it’s often called the “cuddle hormone” and known to be released during hugs, birth, social bonding and from touch.
According to the Neuromuscular Therapy Center, NMT is one type of deep massage technique that focuses on applying manual therapy to soft tissue with “quasi-static pressure” in order to stimulate skeletal striated muscle. (17) In addition to massaging a painful or inflamed muscle, the area around the affected muscle that normally supports it is also massaged in order to release tension. NMT therapists often focus on several factors that can add to muscle or tissue dysfunctions, including joint pathologies, postural positioning, disruptive habits of use, nutritional components, emotional well-being, allergies and neurotoxins.
Reflexology is basically a study of how one part of the human body relates to another part of the body. Reflexology practitioners rely on the reflexes map of the feet and hands to all the internal organs and other human body parts. They believe that by applying the appropriate pressure and massage certain spots on the feet and hands, all other body parts could be energized and rejuvenated. This review aimed to revisit the concept of reflexology and examine its effectiveness, practices, and the training for reflexology practitioners. PubMed, SCOPUS, Google Scholar, and SpringerLink databases were utilized to search the following medical subject headings or keywords: foot massage, reflexology, foot reflexotherapy, reflexological treatment, and zone therapy. The articles published for the last 10 years were included. Previous systematic reviews failed to show concrete evidence for any specific effect of reflexology in any conditions. Due to its non-invasive, non-pharmacological complementary nature, reflexology is widely accepted and anecdotal evidence of positive effect reflexology in a variety of health conditions are available. Adequate training for practitioners is necessary to ensure the consistency of service provided.
While many believe that Deep Tissue Massage simply means heavy pressure, this is a misconception.  Deep Tissue Massage includes many of the same techniques from its foundation in Swedish massage, but takes it in a different direction with a different purpose. Often times the pressure is deeper, but it doesn’t have to be.  Remember, deeper isn’t always better.  Deep Tissue Massage should be looked at as technique with a purpose, to provide structural and functional outcomes.

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In Germany massage is regulated by the government on a federal and national level. Only someone who has completed 3,200 hours of training (theoretical and practical) can use the professional title "Masseur und Medizinischer Bademeister" or Medical Masseur and Spa Therapist. This person can prolong his training depending on the length of professional experience to a Physiotherapist (1 year to 18 months additional training). The Masseur is trained in Classical Massage, Myofascial Massage, Exercise and Movement Therapy. During the training they will study: Anatomy, Physiology, Pathology, Gynecology, Podiatry, Psychiatry, Psychology, Surgery, and probably most importantly Dermiatry and Orthopedics. They are trained in Electrotherapy, and Hydrotherapy. Hydrotherapy includes: Kneipp, Wraps, underwater Massage, therapeutic washing, Sauna and Steambath. A small part of their training will include special forms of massage which are decided by the local college, for example: Foot reflex zone massage, Thai Massage etc. Finally a graduate is allowed to treat patients under the direction of a doctor. He is regulated by the professional body which regulates Physiotherapists. This includes the restriction on advertising and oath of confidentiality to clients.[citation needed]

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Athletes tend to know their bodies fairly well, so information presented to the therapist seems to be better. Compared to the general client, the athlete is also in good shape and is concerned about getting back to the field of play as soon as possible. Some athletes have an obsessive compulsive behavior about their sport. This generally makes them very compliant with the therapists’ recommendations. 

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Deep tissue massage is a stronger massage method and is not recommended for clients with sensitive skin or who are sensitive to strong pressure. The skin can become bruised after a deep tissue massage. Clients should always make therapists aware of their desired pressure and alert therapists if their massage is too strong. This method can also be integrated with other massage techniques.

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